Middleware

Passport is used as middleware within a web application to authenticate requests. Middleware was popularized in Node.js by Express and its even more minimalist sibling Connect. Given its popularity, middleware is easily adaptable to other web frameworks.

The following code is an example of a route that authenticates a user with a username and password:

app.post('/login/password',
  passport.authenticate('local', { failureRedirect: '/login', failureMessage: true }),
  function(req, res) {
    res.redirect('/~' + req.user.username);
  });

In this route, passport.authenticate() is middleware which will authenticate the request. By default, when authentication succeeds, the req.user property is set to the authenticated user, a session is established, and the next function in the stack is called. This next function is typically application-specific logic which will process the request on behalf of the user.

When authentication fails, an HTTP 401 Unauthorized response will be sent and the request-response cycle will end. Any additional functions in the stack will not be called. This default behavior is suitable for APIs obeying representational state transfer (REST) constaints, and can be modified using options.

The mechanism used to authenticate the request is implemented by a strategy, of which there can be many. For instance, authenticating a user with a username and password entails a different set of operations than authenticating a user via OpenID Connect, even though both result in the same outcome of an authenticated user. In the route above, the local strategy is used to verify a username and password.

Prior to employing a strategy to authenticate a request, the strategy must be installed and configured. This brings us to our next topic.

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